Africa can be a harsh environment for animals. The blazing hot South African sun beats down relentlessly on the ground below. If there is little or limited rains, animals have to find a way to survive.
Trees don’t waist all their resources to produce excessive leaves as it takes a lot of energy, so they store all the minerals and water in their roots. Elephants, for instance, have learned to push trees down exposing the roots of the trees, allowing them to eat on it, not just for food but also to get the all essential moisture from the stored up reserves. With the trees pushed down, this helps the smaller animals too who can’t reach the higher parts where there still may be succulent leaves to feed upon. That is only one problem solved though.
Due to their size, however, elephants have to solve the problem of keeping cool in the burning sun. They use their big ears as a fan in a way, flapping them side to side, not to create a cool breeze to over their body but rather to cool down the blood that flows through their ears. When the blood is cooled down, the cooled down blood flows to their heart which is then pumped through the rest of their body, helping to cool them down.
Although a great and effective method, this is not the only way that elephants can cool down their huge bodies. Elephants will often go for a swim or wallow in a mud bath. With mud bathing they will roll around in the mud and use their trunks to throw mud over their backs and cover their whole body. Not just cooling the body down but the mud acts as an extra layer to protect them again direct sunlight, acting as natural sunblock.